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Afforestation is the process of planting trees and establishing forests in areas that previously had no tree cover. This deliberate initiative aims to convert non-forested land into forested ecosystems, thereby enhancing biodiversity, sequestering carbon dioxide, and mitigating global climate change. Unlike reforestation which involves replanting trees in areas where forests have been depleted, afforestation targets lands that have not been traditionally forested.

The benefits of afforestation are manifold. It not only helps in reversing the impacts of deforestation but also supports soil conservation, improves water cycles, and creates habitats for wildlife. By sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide, afforestation plays a crucial role in combating climate change, making it an essential strategy for countries and organizations striving towards sustainability goals and green economies.

However, it's important to approach afforestation projects with careful planning and ecological considerations to ensure they are beneficial and sustainable. The choice of tree species, local climate conditions, and the social and economic impacts on local communities are critical factors that determine the success and sustainability of afforestation efforts.